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Best Practice

In Table 1 the essential elements of an Integrated Control strategy for late blight in Europe are presented and estimated ratings (based on expert judgement) for implementation, barriers and contribution to input reduction are given.

Table 1

Elements

Implementation

Barriers

Input reduction

Organic


Crop Rotation Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND limited influence on blight Intermediate Applicable in organic farming

Primary inoculum sources Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND risk perception Intermediate Applicable in organic farming

Planting time and density Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND limited influence on blight Small Applicable in organic farming

Fertilization Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Limited influence on blight Small Applicable in organic farming

Irrigation Widespread in practice Limited influence on blight Small Applicable in organic farming

Cultivar resistance Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND risks AND risk perception Lower dependency on chemicals AND Large Applicable in organic farming

Fungicides Widespread in practice Economic/costs AND risk perception Intermediate Not applicable in organic farming, except that some countries allow use of Copper

DSS Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND risk perception Intermediate Applicable in organic farming, excluding fungicide modules etc.

Desiccation Widespread in practice Risk perception Small Applicable in organic farming, excluding dessication by applying chemicals

Harvest Widespread in practice Economic/costs Small Applicable in organic farming

Storage Widespread in practice Economic/costs Small Applicable in organic farming


Implementation: the degree the Best Practices (BPs) are used on farmers fields Barriers: description of the barriers why BPs are not used in practice such as costs, labour, risk perception and available registrations. Contribution to input reduction: description of the contribution of the BPs to a lower dependence of chemicals and/or the degree the BPs lower the input of chemicals Organic: describes whether a BP can also be applied in organic potatoes.

Case - Denmark

In Denmark farmers have been using reduced dosages for many years.

In Denmark, data from the national monitoring network, weather based infection pressure, cultivar resistance and crop growth stage determine strategies with reduced dosages.

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Case - Netherlands

Case A: Test of strategies with reduced dose rates.

Test of control stategies including use of a DSS to recommend reduced dose rates and rules on reducing environmental points from "the Masterplan Phytophthora", reduced the treatment frequency considerably. The recommendation of lower dose rates of the new fungicides in NL is still under investigation.

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Case B: Use of information on infection risk and host resistance reduced fungicide input by 75%.

Utilizing host resistance, estimates of influx of spores and calculation of infection events reduced fungicide input 75-85% in more resistante starch potatoes and 50-60 % in ware potatoes.

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Revised 06.03.2014